UPSC Science and Technology: Most Probable Topics in Science and Technology 2021 for UPSC Prelims – Part 1

UPSC Science and Technology

UPSC Science and Technology Most Important Topics 2021-

Science and Technology for UPSC is one of the key areas where aspirants feel that the questions can be a little difficult. This could be because there is no standard book one can refer to cover all the topics. We are reading about a new scientific breakthrough for every breakfast news, the scientific innovations in the last 2 years alone are too much information for UPSC Aspirants.

It is indeed very difficult to keep track of all the updates from UPSC Science and Technology question areas. Click on each headline to check out the Thought Scroll’s list of most important topics for UPSC Science and Technology and UPSC Prelims 2021.

Accelerate Vigyan Scheme

GOI Department of S & T

Accelerate Vigyan Scheme

Science and Engineering Research Board ( SERB ) under the Department of Science and Technology has recently launched the Accelerate Vigyan Scheme to promote high-end research by providing a conducive ecosystem for careers in research with programs like mentoring, mentoring, and national level firsthand work experience.

ABHYAAS- for identifying and nurturing at PG/ PhD level. KARYASHALA and VRITIKA are workshops and internship programs respectively.

SAMMOHAN– A platform envisaged under the scheme to create an umbrella platform for all scientific research collaboration and interactions with two components, SAYONJIKA and SANGOSHTI.

What is SERB?

Science and Engineering Board traces its existence back to the Science and Engineering Research Council under the Department of Science and Technology. SERB is a statutory body established in 2011 through an act of parliament to serve as a key institution in supporting competitive, relevant, and quality research and development.

Joint Lunar Polar Exploration


LUPEX- The Lunar Polar Exploration ( ISRO & JAXA )

Joint Lunar Polar Exploration by Japanese National Space Agency and Indian Space Research Organization

LUPEX is a kind robotic mission to the South Pole region of the moon with a lunar rover and lunar lander- ISRO will be providing the Lander while JAXA will be responsible for the launch vehicle and the rover. The LUPEX mission is scheduled to be launched in 2024. This topic is important because of the importance of a coalition between the USA, JAPAN, and INDIA to counter China’s dominance in the Indian Ocean Pacific Region.

In September, JAXA and NASA have released a joint statement on the possibility of NASA’s involvement in the LUPEX joint mission between India and JAPAN.

Pay Load on the Joint Lunar Mission

  • Ground Penetrating Radar ( ISRO)
  • Advanced Lunar Imaging Spectrometer
  • Neutron Spectrometer (NASA)
  • Exospheric Mass Spectrometer for LUPEX ( ESA )
  • Resource Investigation Water Analyzer
  • ISRO sample analysis package.



What are Bio-Pesticides? Why are Bio-Pesticides in News?

Biopesticides are an alternative to Chemical Fertilizers where all the ingredients involved are completely derived from natural sources like oil extracts, extracts from leaves, microbes like bacteria, fungus, etc. there are more than 300 known natural ingredients in Bio-pesticides.

Biopesticides are very important to support the national policy on Organic Farming / Organic Farmers. Recently, the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has invented the formula for a Bio-Pesticide targeting the insects on seed spice crop. Biopesticides like microbial pesticides and plant-based pesticides are nontoxic and have huge benefits for farmers in terms of cost, land degradation, health.

Fifth State of Matter


What is the Fifth State of Matter? Why is the Fifth State of Matter in News?

Fifth State of Matter

Solid, Liquids, Gasses, and Plasma- these four states of matter are more or less well known to everyone. However, Bose-Einstein Condensate is the fifth state of matter that was created by Scientists in the 1990’s in laboratories. This topic is back into prominence as NASA’s scientists recently created Bose-Einstein Condensate onboard ISS (International Space Station)

How is the Fifth Sate of Matter Created?

Atoms show a peculiar behavior at sub-zero temperatures creating a whole new form of matter, when you take a group of atoms and bring the temperature down to sub-zero levels, these atoms cling together and start acting as one big atom. This state of atoms is popularly known as Bose-Einstein Condensate.

Cold Atom Lab- ISS

Cold Atom Lab is a dedicated lab that runs on low power which has been launched and attached to International Space Station in 2018. The purpose of the Cold Atom Lab on ISS is to exploit the conditions of micro gravity and completely understand the behavior of these condensates.

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor


What is International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor?

ITER ( International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is one of the largest projects in human history which is an international collaboration between the following member countries-

  • China
  • European Union
  • India
  • Japan
  • Russia
  • South Korea
  • United States
  • United Kingdom

The idea behind ITER is to conduct experimental research and demonstrate the possibility of Fusion Energy as a solution for clean and sustainable energy. While the current nuclear power plants run on fission technology, fusion requires very high temperatures like the Sun ( Fusion on Sun).

DEMO of ITER is set to be one of the first Fusion reactors to generate electricity in near future. Understanding the breeding methods of Tritium- a very rare radioactive isotope of Hydrogen– is also part of the ITER mission.

Stay tuned for Part 2 of the Most Important Topics for UPSC Science and Technology along with Most Probable Topics for Economy and Polity.

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